Sand Production

If SHD is known, most wells are perforated sub-parallel with that direction (top). The higher flow in that direction, and if the formation is composed of a friable sand, can cause major sanding issues. A less costly option than gravel packs in friable sands has been to reduce flow and sand production by perforated at right angles, ie, sub-parallel with ShD (bottom).


SHD has been measured to change up to 90° over distances as small as 2km, caused by crust cutting faults intersecting at 90°. SHD and ShD can be complex at such scales and stress derived from 3D seismic data are required to accurately define such faults and the stress distributions around them.